Human body obtains glucose from  food , the liver and muscles also supply our body with glucose. Blood transports the glucose to cells throughout the body. Insulin, a chemical hormone, helps the body’s cells to take in the glucose. Insulin is made by the beta cells of the pancreas and then released into the bloodstream.

If the body does not make enough insulin or the insulin does not work the way it should; glucose is not able to enter the body’s cells. Instead the glucose remains in the blood causing an increase in blood glucose level. This high blood glucose level causes pre-diabetes or diabetes.

Pre-diabetes means that blood glucose level is higher than average but not high enough for a diabetes diagnosis. Having pre-diabetic glucose levels increases risk for developing type 2 diabetes as well as heart disease and stroke. Still, if you have pre-diabetes there are many ways to reduce your risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Moderate physical activity and a healthy diet accompanied by modest weight loss can prevent type 2 diabetes and help a person with pre-diabetes to return to normal blood glucose levels.

Symptoms of diabetes include excessive thirst, frequent urination, being very hungry, feeling tired, weight loss without trying, the appearance of sores that slowly heal, having dry and itchy skin, loss of feeling or tingling in feet, and blurry eyesight. Still, some people with diabetes do not experience any of these symptoms.

Diabetes can be developed at any age. There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is also referred to as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. It is usually diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. In this type of diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas are no longer able to produce insulin because they have been destroyed by the body’s immune system.

Type 2 diabetes is also referred to as adult-onset diabetes or non insulin-dependent diabetes. It may be developed at any age, including childhood. In this type of diabetes is the result of insulin resistance, a condition in which the body’s cells do not interact properly with insulin. At first, the pancreas is able to produce more insulin to keep up with the increased demand for insulin. However, it loses the ability to make up for the body’s cells inability to interact properly with insulin with time. The insulin is unable to help the cells take in glucose, this results in high blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes amongst  senior citizens in India. An unhealthy weight contributed by a high calorie diet and lack of physical activity increases the risk for developing this form of diabetes.

Type 3 diabetes is also referred to as Gestational diabetes; development of diabetes in the late stages of pregnancy. It is caused by hormones associated with pregnancy and a shortage of insulin. This form of diabetes goes away after the baby is born, but puts both the mother and child at a greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes in later life.

Diabetes is a serious disease and when it is not well controlled, it damages the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, gums, and teeth. Having diabetes makes one more than twice as likely as someone without diabetes to have heart disease or stroke.

It is important to keep blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol under control to avoid the serious complications associated with diabetes. Taking steps to control diabetes can make a large impact in the one’s health.

In the next post we will discuss about the prevention & treatment of diabetes for the elderly.

Advertisements